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A Multimedia Module for Teaching Dialogic Reading Strategies

February 22, 2019

Krimm, H. & Lund, E.

Presented at the Pacific Coast Research Conference, San Diego, CA

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a multimedia learning module for increasing SLPs’ knowledge of dialogic reading strategies.

Method: SLPs (n = 28) completed tests of dialogic reading strategy knowledge before and after viewing a multimedia module designed to teach dialogic reading strategies or a control module. Data were analyzed using multiple regression with pretest score, group, and the pretest score by group interaction predicting posttest score.

Results: Pretest score, group, and the pretest by group interaction were statistically significant predictors of post-test score.

Conclusion: SLPs can learn dialogic reading strategies from the multimedia module.

Presented at the Annual Convention American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, Boston, MA.

Student Research Travel Award

Purpose: To characterize speech-language pathologists’ (SLPs’) knowledge of early literacy skills relative to teachers’ knowledge.

Method: SLPs (n = 10) and teachers (general education and special education; n = 9) completed the Teacher Knowledge of Early Literacy Skills survey (Folsom et al., 2017). T-scores were compared with an independent samples t-test.

Results: Both groups demonstrated mean T-scores of approximately 50. they answered less than half of the questions correctly. 

Conclusion: SLPs probably don't have worse knowledge of early literacy skills than teachers. There's room for improvement in both groups.

Speech-Language Pathologists' Metalinguistic Knowledge

June 09, 2018

Krimm, H & Schuele, C. M.

Presented at the Symposium for Research in Child Language Disorders, Madison, WI

Purpose: To begin to characterize SLPs’ knowledge for preventing, identifying, and remediating reading disabilities through collaboration and direct intervention.

Study 1.

Method: SLPs (n = 7) and elementary school teachers (n = 6) completed the Teacher Knowledge of Early Literacy Skills survey (TKELS; Folsom et al., 2017). This measure assesses general knowledge for teaching reading.

Results: SLPs and teachers achieved mid-range T-scores on the TKELS. Their performance did not differ substantially (d = .09).

Study 2.

Method: SLPs (n = 13) completed the Basic Language Constructs Survey (Binks-Cantrell et al., 2012), which assesses declarative knowledge, metalinguistic knowledge, and linguistic skill in phonology, orthography, and morphology. We examined performance on a subset of items that tap primarily (a) explicit phonemic awareness, (b) orthographic knowledge, and (c) morphological knowledge.

Results: SLPs’ median performance was less than 80% correct in all three metalinguistic knowledge domains. SLPs demonstrated relative strength in explicit phonemic awareness.

Conclusion: SLPs may not be less prepared than teachers to address reading disabilities. They may have a relative strength in explicit phonemic awareness but have room for improvement in knowledge for addressing reading disabilities.

Item difficulty on the Measure of Phonological Awareness

February 02, 2018

Krimm, H., Liang, S. Y. & Schuele, C. M.

Presented at the Pacific Coast Research Conference, San Diego, CA

Purpose: This study had two purposes: (a) to determine the difficulty of each subtest of the Measure of Phonological Awareness (MOPA: Schuele, 2017) and (b) to examine the item estimates for the All Sounds Segmentation subtest.

Method: We administered the MOPA to 44 children in the winter of first grade.

Results: Subtest difficulty increases in the following order (easiest to hardest): initial sound segmentation, rhyme judgment, onset-rime blending, final sound segmentation, rhyme generation, all sounds blending, all sounds segmentation. The item difficulty distribution for the All Sounds Segmentation subtest is slightly skewed towards easier items. All items demonstrate adequate discrimination indices.

Conclusions: The MOPA subtests represent a range of difficulty for first-grade children and may be useful for planning instruction. The item estimates for the All Sounds Segmentation subtest are adequate.

Equivalence of Administration Modes on MOPA Performance

February 02, 2018

Liang, S. Y., Krimm, H., & Schuele, C. M.

Presented at the Pacific Coast Research Conference, San Diego, CA

Purpose: To assess whether stimuli presentation method influences task performance on the Measure of Phonological Awareness (MOPA; Schuele, 2017).

Method: We administered the MOPA to 4 kindergarten children, 5 first-grade children, and 1 second-grade child. Children completed the MOPA once with live stimuli and once with audio-recorded stimuli. Order of presentation mode was counterbalanced across participants.

Results: Mastery outcomes were generally the same across presentation modes, with the notable exception of the Blend All Sounds subtest. Three children achieved mastery on the Blend All Sounds subtest with live administration but not with audio-recorded administration. 

Conclusions: Audio-recorded administration may be a viable method for ensuring reliable administration of items that tap phonological analysis skills.

Presented at the Symposium for Research on Child Language Disorders, Madison, WI

Student Travel Award Recipient

Purpose: To conduct a preliminary (i.e., small n) investigation of the reliability and validity of the Derivation and Decomposition subtests of the widely-used Test of Morphological Structure (Carlisle, 2000).

Method: The data that were analyzed included responses from 52 third-grade children who completed the TMS as part of a larger study. Analyses examined internal consistency, item difficulty, and item discrimination for each TMS subtest.

Results: The Derivation subtest demonstrated adequate internal consistency. However, internal consistency on the Decomposition subtest was low. Item difficulty was poorly distributed for both subtests. Item discrimination indices were low for both subtests.

Conclusions: Low reliability may relate to the syntactic and semantic features of the test items. These findings suggest opportunities for improvement in the measurement of derivational morphology knowledge.

Derivational Morphology Knowledge of Children with Specific Language Impairment

June 11, 2016

Krimm, H., Werfel., K. L., & Schuele, C. M.

Presented at the Symposium for Research in Child Language Disorders, Madison, WI 

Student Travel Award Recipient

Purpose: To characterize derivational morphology knowledge in children with specific language impairment (SLI) compared to children with typical language.

Method: Participants were children with SLI (n = 32) and children with typical language (n = 40) in second through fourth grade. Participants completed the Test of Morphological Structure (TMS; Carlisle, 2000) as part of a larger study. Errors on the TMS derivation subtest were coded to characterize (a) presence of morphological change, (b) legality of response, and (c) syntactic appropriateness of response.

Results: Children with SLI produced fewer responses that included a morphological change than children with typical language.

Conclusions: Children with SLI do not use derivational morphology knowledge productively to the same extent as peers with typical language.

Prevalence of Literacy Impairments in Children with Specific Language Impairment

June 10, 2016

Werfel, K. L., & Krimm, H.

Presented at the Symposium for Research in Child Language Disorders, Madison, WI

Student Travel Award Recipient

Purpose: To illustrate the pattern of reading impairments in children with specific language impairment (SLI) compared to that of children with typical language.

Method: Participants were 32 children with SLI and 39 children with typical language in grades 2 through 4. Participants completed a battery of language and literacy measures.

Results: The rate of reading impairment is substantially higher in children with SLI than in children with typical language. Additionally, children with SLI were far more likely than children with typical language to demonstrate text-level reading deficits.

Conclusions: Speech-language pathologists need to be prepared to identify reading impairments, especially among children with SLI. 

Effect of an Online Learning Module for Transcription and Phonological Awareness

October 15, 2015

Krimm, H., & Schuele, C. M.

Presented at Gerald S. Gotterer Health Professions Education Day, Nashville, TN and Vanderbilt Kennedy Center Science Day, Nashville, TN

Blue Ribbon Poster

Purpose: To empirically evaluate the effectiveness of an online learning module for establishing basic transcription skills and phonological awareness in matriculating graduate students.

Method: Students completed pre-test, post-test, and maintenance assessments of basic phonetic transcription and phonological awareness. They completed an online learning module that directly targets transcription skills between the pre-test and the post-test.

Results: Students’ knowledge of International Phonetic Alphabet symbols and their skill transcribing familiar and unfamiliar words improved after completing module activities, and gains maintained over 6 weeks. Knowledge and skill discrepancies diminished between students who had previously taken a phonetics class and students who had not. 

Conclusions: Online learning may be a viable solution for ensuring foundational knowledge among speech-language pathology graduate students.

Vocabulary and the Test of Morphological Structure: Redundancy in Predicting Reading Comprehension in Third Graders

July 18, 2015

Feldman, J. I., Krimm, H., Weiler, B. K., Liang, S. Y., & Schuele, C. M.

Presented at the annual meeting of the Society for the Scientific Study of Reading, Big Island, HI

Purpose: To explore the unique influence of morphological knowledge as measured by the Test of Morphological Structure (TMS; Carlisle, 2000) on reading comprehension when factoring out variance attributable to vocabulary knowledge.

Method: Twenty-six third graders completed the TMS and measures of vocabulary knowledge, reading comprehension, and word identification. 

Results: In preliminary analyses, performance on the TMS did not account for unique variance in reading comprehension.

Conclusions: Success on the TMS may represent lexical access to the target responses, rather than derivational morphology knowledge. Error responses may provide more insight into the derivational morphology knowledge. Our initial impressions are that errors which preserve the stem of the target response and errors that preserve the target part of speech may indicate greater morphological knowledge than answers that do not.

Utility of the Spelling Sensitivity Score to Analyze Spellings of Children with Language Impairment

June 05, 2015

Krimm, H. & Werfel, K. L.

Presented at the Symposium for Research in Child Language Disorders, Madison, WI

Purpose: To examine the utility of the Spelling Sensitivity Score (SSS; Masterson & Apel, 2010) as compared to percentage correct scoring in analyzing the spellings of children with specific language impairment (SLI).

Method: Participants were 31 children with SLI and 28 children with typical language in grades 2 through 4. Spellings of individual words were scored using two methods: (a) percentage correct and (b) SSS.

Results: Children with SLI scored lower than children with typical language with both scoring methods. Follow-up analyses showed that children with SLI were more likely than children with typical language to omit elements and to represent elements with illegal graphemes. Children with typical language were more likely than children with SLI to represent all elements with correct graphemes.

Conclusions: Consistent with previous findings, children with SLI spell less accurately than their peers. A metric such as SSS may aid educators in identifying specific areas of linguistic difficulty captured in children’s misspellings.

Predictive Value of Orthographic Processing for Spelling Proficiency (Master's Thesis)

November 16, 2013

Krimm, H., Werfel., K. L., & Schuele, C. M.

Presented at the annual conference of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, Chicago, IL

Purpose: To collect preliminary data to investigate orthographic processing as a predictor of spelling proficiency.

Method: Twenty-two third-grade students with typical language abilities and literacy skills completed measures of orthographic knowledge, orthographic processing, and spelling.

Results: Neither orthographic processing nor orthographic knowledge significantly predicted spelling proficiency. Orthographic knowledge accounted for approximately 14% of the variance in spelling.

Conclusions: Conclusions are limited because this study was exploratory and underpowered. It is likely that orthographic knowledge relates to spelling, but orthographic processing may not.

Spelling across Linguistic Contexts: Implications for Assessment

November 16, 2013

Werfel, K. L. & Krimm, H.

Presented at the annual conference of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, Chicago, IL

Purpose: To investigate the effect of linguistic context on word spelling in elementary school children.

Method: Thirty-one elementary school children with typical language and reading abilities completed measures of single-word spelling, spelling in dictated sentences, and spelling in story composition.

Results: Children's spellings were more accurate in sentence contexts that single-word or story contexts. However, words were least difficult in the sentence context, which may account for this finding.

Conclusions: Measuring spelling in story contexts is particularly problematic because children may favor words that they know how to spell. Our findings highlight the need for a spelling measure that assesses the same words in different contexts to allow better understanding of the effect of linguistic context on spelling. 

Preschool Teacher Talk: What Relates to More Complex Syntax

November 16, 2012

Dunn Davison, M., Schuele, C. M., Fisher, J., Combs, S., Krimm, H., & Dickinson, D.

Presented at the annual convention of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, Atlanta, GA 

Teachers' Language Input to Preschoolers across Different Language-Learning Contexts

November 18, 2011

Dunn Davison, M., Schuele, C. M., Fabish, A., Krimm, H., & Kraske, L.

Presented at the annual convention of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, San Diego, CA

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